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Java Operators:


Operator: unary, binary, and ternary. It can be applied to variables, literal or values.


Operand: variables, literal or values on which operator is applied is known as operand.


-       Java operators are not necessarily evaluated from left-to-right order


public class Welcome {

 

   public static void main(String[] args) {

         int val1 = 10;

         double val2 = 10 + 2 * --val1;

         System.out.println("Value of val1 " + val1);

         System.out.println("Value of val2 " + val2);

   }

}


 


-       Order of Precedence


 


Order of operator precedence

Post-unary operators

expression++, expression--

Pre-unary operators

++expression, --expression

Other unary operators

+, -, !

Multiplication/Division/Modulus

*, /, %

Addition/Subtraction

+, -

Shift operators

<<, >>, >>>

Relational operators

<, >, <=, >=, instanceof

Equal to/not equal to

==, !=

Logical operators

&, ^, |

Short-circuit logical operators

&&, ||

Ternary operators

boolean expression ? expression1 : expression2

Assignment operators

=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, &=, ^=, !=, <<=, >>=, >>>=


 


 


Arithmetic Operator:


-       Addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%),++ and


 


Calculate the result for below expression


 


int val1 = 3 * 9 + 10 * 4 - 18;


 


Ans: 49


 


Evaluate below expression


 


int val1 = 3 * (9 + 10 * 4) - 18;


 


Ans: 129


Note: operators + and += may be applied to String values, which results in String concatenation.


 


Division and Modulo Operator:


 


System.out.println(100%10);

System.out.println(11%3);

System.out.println(9%10);

System.out.println(11%2);

System.out.println(100/10);

System.out.println(12%10);

System.out.println(12%3);


 


With negative value


 


System.out.println(-100%10);

System.out.println(-11%3);

System.out.println(-9%10);

System.out.println(-11%2);

System.out.println(-100/10);

System.out.println(-12%10);

System.out.println(-12%3);


 


Numeric Promotion:


-       A long value takes up more space than an int value.


o   If two values have different data types, Java will automatically promote one of the values to the larger of the two data types


o   If one of the values is integral and the other is floating-point, Java will automatically promote the integral value to the floating-point value’s data type.


o   Smaller data types, namely byte, short, and char, are first promoted to int any time they’re used with a Java binary arithmetic operator, even if neither of the operands is int. (This rule does not apply on unary operator e.g. ++ , applying ++ to a short value results in a short value.)


o   After all promotion has occurred and the operands have the same data type, the resulting value will have the same data type as its promoted operands.


 


public class Welcome {

   public static void main(String[] args) {

        

         //Rule 1

         int val1 = 10;

         long val2 = 12;

         System.out.println(val1+val2); //22 but type of value will be long.

        

         //Rule 2

         double val11 = 10.1;

         float val12 = 12.0f; //f is mandatory here. or you can have (float)12.0

         double result = val11+val12; //both operands being promoted to a double

         System.out.println(result); //22.1 but type of value will be double.

        

         //Rule 3

         short v1=10;

         short v2=2;

         System.out.println(v1/v2); //5 but type of value will be int. resulting output is not a short

        

         //All rules

         short x1 = 120;

         float y1 = 12.0f;

         double z1 = 12;

        

         result = x1*y1/z1;

         //x1 will automatically be promoted to int  because it is a short

         //The promoted x1 value will then be automatically promoted to a float to multiply with y1.

         //The result of x1 * y1 will then be automatically promoted to a double

         System.out.println(result); //120.0

          

   }

}


Unary Operator


 


-       a unary operator is one that requires exactly one operand, or variable, to function.


I++, j--


 


Negation Operator (!)


-       Also known as logical complement operator.


public class Welcome {

   public static void main(String[] args) {

         boolean x=false;

         System.out.println(!x);

         System.out.println(!!x);

        

         int y=100;

         System.out.println(-y);

          

   }

}


 


Increment and decrement operator:


 


public class Welcome {

      public static void main(String[] args) {

            int counter = 0;

            System.out.println(counter); // Outputs 0

            System.out.println(++counter); // Outputs 1

            System.out.println(counter); // Outputs 1

            System.out.println(counter--); // Outputs 1

            System.out.println(counter); // Outputs 0

           

            int val1 = 7;

            int val2 = ++val1 * 20 / val1-- + --val1;

            //How this evaluated

            // 8 * 20 /val1-- + --val1

            // 8 * 20 /8 + --val1

            //// 8 * 20 /8 + 6

            // Now evaluate from left to right

            //160/8 + 6

            //20+6

            System.out.println("val1 is " + val1);

            System.out.println("val2 is " + val2);

      }

}

 


 


 


Assignment Operator:


 


public class Welcome {

      public static void main(String[] args) {

            //int counter = 0.0;

            int counter = (int) 0.0;

            short y = (short)9999999;

           

            short val1 = 10;

            short val2 = 3;

            short result = (short) (val1 * val2); // DOES NOT COMPILE if not casted

           

            System.out.println(counter);

            System.out.println(y); //:) It is a different value.

            System.out.println(result); //:) It is a different value.

      }

}


 


 


-       Integer overflow: The expressions in the previous example now compile, although there’s a cost. The second value, 9999999, is too large to be stored as a short, so numeric overflow occurs and it becomes -27009. Overflow is when a number is so large that it will no longer fit within the data type, so the system “wraps around” to the next lowest value and counts up from there. There’s also an analogous underflow, when the number is too low to fi t in the data type.


 


Compounding Assignment:


 


public class Welcome {

      public static void main(String[] args) {

            int v1= 10;

            int v2 = 20;

            v2*=v1; //Compounding operation

           

            System.out.println(v2);

           

            long x = 23;

            long y = (x=22);

            System.out.println(x); // Outputs 22

            System.out.println(y); // Also, outputs 22

      }

}

 


 


 


Relational Operator:


 


public class Welcome {

      public static void main(String[] args) {

            int val1 = 10, val2 = 20, val3 = 10;

            System.out.println(val1 < val2); // Outputs true

            System.out.println(val1 <= val2); // Outputs true

            System.out.println(val1 >= val3); // Outputs true

            System.out.println(val1 > val3); // Outputs false

      }

}


 


-       a instanceof b : True if the reference that a points to is an instance of a class, subclass, or class that implements a particular interface, as named in b


 


Logical Operators: (&), (|), and (^)


 


X & Y : AND

X | Y : Inclusive Or

 X ^ Y : Exclusive Or

 

Y=true

y=false

 

Y=true

y=false

 

Y=true

y=false

x=true

TRUE

FALSE

x=true

TRUE

TRUE

x=true

FALSE

TRUE

X=false

FALSE

FALSE

X=false

TRUE

FALSE

X=false

TRUE

FALSE


 


Here are some tips to help remember this table:


-       AND is only true if both operands are true.


-       Inclusive OR is only false if both operands are false.


-       Exclusive OR is only true if the operands are different.


 


Short circuit operator: (|| and &&) :


 


-       The short-circuit operators are nearly identical to the logical operators, & and |, respectively, except that the right-hand side of the expression may never be evaluated if the final result can be determined by the left-hand side of the expression.


 


public class Welcome {

      public static void main(String[] args) {

            boolean y=false;

            boolean x = true || (y=true);

            System.out.println("X = " + x + " AND Y = " + y);

           

            boolean z = true && (y=true);

            System.out.println("Z = " + z + " AND Y = " + y);

           

            int val1 = 6;

            boolean val2 = (val1 >= 6) || (++val1 <= 7);

            System.out.println("Val1 = " + val1 + " AND Val2 = " + val2);

      }

}


 


 


Equality Operators: There are three important equality operator needs to be learned. This helps us to determine whether two things are equal or not. Bothe require two operands and return Boolean value.


 


-       equals() : It applies only for objects.


-       == and != : This applies for both Objects (but there is a catch) as well as primitive data types.


 


Let’s take case by case scenario


1.     Comparing primitive datatypes using == and !=


                                   i.    10 == 10.0 (will return true)


                                  ii.    10 !=5 (will return true)


 


import java.io.File;

 

public class Welcome {

      public static void main(String[] args) {

            int v1=10;

           

            System.out.println("Print 1 = " + (v1==10.0));

           

            boolean x=false;

            boolean y=false;

            System.out.println("Print 1.A = " + (x==y));

            System.out.println("Print 1.B = " + (x!=y));

           

            String str = "HadoopExam.com";

            String str1 = "QuickTechie.com";

            String str2 = "HadoopExam.com";

            System.out.println("Print 2 = " + str.equals(null));

            System.out.println("Print 3 = " + str.equals(str1));

            System.out.println("Print 4 = " + str.equals(str2));

           

            Integer i1 = new Integer(10);

            Integer i2 = new Integer(10);

            System.out.println("Print 5 = " + i1.equals(i2));

            System.out.println("Print 6 = " + (i1==i2)); //check here

           

            File f1 = new File("HadoopExam.txt");

            File f2 = new File("HadoopExam.txt");

            File f3 = f1;

            System.out.println("Print 7 = " + (f1 == f2)); // Outputs false

            System.out.println("Print 8 = " + (f1 == f3)); // Outputs true

           

      }

}

 


 


 

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